Memorization is the process of committing something to memory. The act of memorization is often a deliberate mental process undertaken in order to store in memory for later recall items such as experiences, names, appointments, addresses, telephone numbers, lists, stories, poems, pictures, maps, diagrams, facts, music or other visual, auditory, or tactical information. Memorization may also refer to the process of storing particular data into the memory of a device.
Some principles and techniques that have been used to assist in memorization include :
1. Rote Learning
Rote learning also known as learning by repetition, is a method of learning by memorizing information. This memorization is usually achieved through the repetition of activities such as reading or recitation, and the use of flashcards and other learning aids. The theory behind this learning technique is that students will commit facts to memory after repeated study, and will then be able to retrieve those facts whenever necessary.
In general, a mnemonic (from Greek mnemon or mindful; pronounced neh-MAHN-ik ) is a memory aid, such as an abbreviation, rhyme or mental image that helps to remember something. The technique of developing these remembering devices is called “mnemonics.” Mnemonics can be used to remember phone numbers, all your new department colleagues’ names or the years of the reigns of the Kings and Queens of England. A number of approaches are used.
3. Mnemonic Link System
A mnemonic link system is a method of remembering lists, based on creating an association between the elements of that list. For example, if one wished to remember the list (dog, envelope, thirteen, yarn, window), one could create a link system, such as a story about a “dog stuck in an envelope, mailed to an unlucky black cat playing with yarn by the window”. It is then argued that the story would be easier to remember than the list itself.
A probably more effective method rather than creating a story is to actually link each element of the list with the following, seeing in one’s mind eye an image that includes two elements in the list that are next to each other. For example, if we wanted to easily memorize the last list one would imagine his or her dog inside of a giant envelope, then one would “see” an unlucky black cat (or whatever that reminds the user ‘thirteen’) eating a huge envelope. The same logic should be used with the rest of the items. The observation that absurd images are easier to remember is known as the Von Restorff effect, but was refuted as a mnemonic technique by several studies. Important is not the absurdness but the established interaction between the two words. By combining this method with others, like the Peg System and the Major System (which is used to retain numbers), we can easily get what some people call a trained memory.
However, in order to access a certain element of the list, one needs to “traverse” the system (much in the same vein as a linked list), in order to get the element from the system.
4. Peg System
* Phonetic Peg System is sophisticated way to remember a large number of items and their position within a list. That system is based on the Phonetic Alphabet. Its value in addition to allowing you to remember long lists is in helping you remember numbers.Phonetic means the sound of speech and the Phonetic Peg System is based on ten consonant sounds. We relate these ten sounds to the ten basic digits in our numerical system. Together they form a very useful and powerful memory technique.
5. The Major System
The Major System is a mnemonic technique which replaces consonant sounds into numbers. It can help you to remember long numbers using words or sentences. On this page I build a Major System generator to be used as a wordlist builder.
6. Method of Loci
One of the oldest mnemonic systems is the method of loci [LOW-sye]. A “locus” is a location, “loci” is the plural. The method of loci uses locations of a familiar place (imagined in memory) as a framework for memory retrieval.
To use the method of loci, you associate items you wish to remember later with locations of a familiar room, building, or street. Then, to retrieve the information, you mentally “stroll down memory lane” and visualize the same locations. If the method works, the information you stored in various locations will come back with the memory of the location. To be effective, one must usually visualize an object “doing something” or interacting in some way with the objects at a particular location.